While the role of gut flora in the development of diabetes continues to be researched, results thus far have showed there is a gut flora change in those with diabetes. The purpose of this issue is to explore one facet of this interrelationship, namely the gut microbiome, and its interplay in chronic disease, particularly diabetes.
Obesity, a common feature of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), is associated with low-grade inflammation. This inflammation can change the makeup and types of gut flora found in these individuals. Gut microbiota has the capacity to optimize the energy obtained from the diet and thus can lead to more fat storage. In addition, there are associated changes in gut microbiota as demonstrated by an increase in the capacity of fermenting and absorption of nondigested carbohydrates. Nutrients with prebiotic properties, both carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate sources, can change the gut flora and possibly reduce the probability of developing T2DM.
This issue explores the relationship of the gut microbiome in the prevention and management of diabetes. It is divided into two key tracts of articles: those that describe the role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of both type 1 diabetes (T1 DM) and T2DM through chronic inflammation, changes in gut epithelial and alterations of the immune system; and those which cast a concentrated focus on the impact of factors such as medications, dietary composition and probiotic/prebiotic treatment on the microbiome.
CPE Level: 2